Technology of materials

The Materials Engineering is a science and profession that practically implements the acquired scientific and technical knowledge in order to design and build various materials that improve human life. The material science is a interdisciplinary science that studies the materials characteristics and their application in different fields of science and engineering. It uses elements of applied physics and chemistry, so as of chemical, mechanical, constructive and electrical engineering. The aim of the material science isn't only searching new materials and using their characteristics but also studying the material essence, how the desired material could be designed. The base of this science is to put in a proportion the physical characteristics of the designed product and the relative performances in a certain application, with the structure of atoms and material phases. The main indicators of the material structure and its characteristics come from the chemical elements of which it is composed, so as from the manner of material processing to its final form.

There's an old sentence: "The materials are like people; the defects are those matters that make them interesting". As there isn't a perfect human being thus physically isn't possible to have a material with perfect crystal structure, in other words, there're defects in the structure of the material. Because of that instead of building perfect structures, the scientists manipulate with the defects. All materials don't have a crystal structure. some of them have different variations of the crystal structure, some have a proper, regular disposition of atoms in a specific structure (metals) and some of them (amorphous materials-composites) do not have permanent and regular disposition of atoms.

Coatings and films are materials (thermoplastics) used in the production of composites with various technological processes.. There are different kinds of gels used as material coatings applied with injection. These materials are applied with the most advanced methods and are essential part of the composite material. The coatings have a high absorption coefficient, a small emission and reflection coefficient and, high thermic and corrosive stability.

Composites. The discovery and development of materials with useful characteristics like stiffness, thermic stability and mechanical resistance, have an essential importance for the technological progress in our society for different types of composites - laminates, reinforced plastics, combined synthetic clothes, hybrid composites. In the last 10 years composites have a great application in the aviation, shipbuilding and automotive industry, trying to supersede the conventional materials.

The research and implementation of new technologies is a global trend that has to be followed. Various models have to determine the influences of all parameters that affect the material quality - the product, and through the material micro-structure, using optical, electronic, SEM analysis, the mechanisms that make the phenomena appears during the technological processes, could be explained. The composite science develops gradually as a result of the industrial demand and a lot of researches and testings are being conducted.


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